There are many different instruments that are commonly used in jazz music, and the specific instruments used can vary depending on the style and context of the music. Here are a few of the most common instruments used in jazz:
Piano: The piano is a common instrument in jazz music and is often used to provide the harmonic foundation for the music. Jazz pianists may use a range of techniques, including comping (providing chordal accompaniment), soloing (performing a melodic solo), and improvising (creating music spontaneously).
Drums: The drums are an important part of the rhythm section in jazz music and are often used to create a swinging or groove-based feel. Jazz drummers may use a range of techniques, including various stick and cymbal patterns, to create complex rhythms and interactive interactions with other musicians.
Bass: The bass is another important part of the rhythm section in jazz music and is often used to provide the foundation for the music. Jazz bassists may use a range of techniques, including walking bass lines (a repeating pattern of notes played over the chord progression of a song) and soloing, to create a strong rhythmic and melodic foundation for the music.
Guitar: The guitar is often used in jazz music and can play a variety of roles, from providing chordal accompaniment to soloing. Jazz guitarists may use a range of techniques, including chord voicings (arrangements of notes in a chord), arpeggios (broken chords played one note at a time), and improvisation, to create complex and interesting musical textures.
Saxophone: The saxophone is a common instrument in jazz music and is often used to play melodies and improvise solos. Jazz saxophonists may use a range of techniques, including alternate fingerings, multiphonics (playing more than one pitch at a time), and circular breathing (a technique for continuous blowing), to create a wide range of sounds and textures.
Vocals: Vocals are often used in jazz music, and many jazz singers have made significant contributions to the genre. Jazz vocals can take many forms, ranging from scat singing (improvised vocalizations using nonsense syllables) to more traditional vocal styles such as singing with lyrics. Some famous jazz singers include Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Louis Armstrong, all of whom are known for their unique vocal styles and ability to improvise.
In addition to traditional vocals, many jazz musicians also use electronic effects and processing to manipulate their voices, creating a wide range of sounds and textures. Some jazz musicians, such as Bobby McFerrin and Gregory Porter, have made significant contributions to the genre using only their voices, without any accompanying instruments.
In jazz music, lyrics are often used in the same way as in other genres of music, to express emotions, tell a story, or convey a message. However, jazz lyrics may also be used to create a structure for improvisation or to provide a basis for scat singing, which is a form of vocal improvisation in which the singer uses nonsense syllables instead of actual words.
Jazz lyrics may also be more abstract and poetic than lyrics in other genres of music, and may use figurative language or symbolism to convey meaning. Jazz lyrics often reflect the social and cultural contexts in which the music was created, and may address themes such as love, loss, hope, and social or political issues.
Overall, vocals and the meaning of lyrics in jazz music depends on the context in which they are used and the intentions of the songwriter. They can be used to express emotions, tell a story, convey a message, or provide a structure for the music to follow.